This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
This tree is preliminary and is based on research in progress by Erin Tripp. It only includes 21 of 48 genera placed in this lineage by Scotland & Vollesen (2000). The remaining genera are:
Aechmanthera, Apassalus, Benoicanthus, Brunoniella, Clarkeasia, Echinacanthus, Epiclastopelma, Eranthemum, Eremomastax, Heteradelphia, Ionacanthus, Kosmosiphon, Leptosiphonium, Lychniothyrsus, Physacanthus, Pseudoruellia, Ruelliopsis, Satanocrater, Sautiera, Spirostigma, Stenosiphonium, Strobilanthes, Strobilanthopsis, Trichanthera, Trichosanchezia, Zygoruellia.
The Ruellieae lineage consists of some 750+ species (ca. 50 genera) that are distributed throughout the tropics, New and Old World, and also extend into temperate latitudes. It includes several diverse genera such as Ruellia, Strobilanthes, Sanchezia, Hygrophila, and Dyschoriste among others. Pollination syndromes and floral morphologies are wildly diverse in the group. The genus Ruellia alone is known to be pollinated by bees, hummingbirds, sunbirds, hawkmoths, butterflies, and bats. Cleistogamy, or the production of closed (thus obligately self-fertilizing) flowers, is also widespread in Ruellieae.
Synapomorphies that distinguish Ruellieae from other Acanthaceae clades are poorly studied but may include left-contort corolla aestivation, seeds with mucilaginous hygroscopic trichomes, unequal stigma lobes, presence of a "filament curtain" (see Manktelow 2000), or combinations of the above characters. The filament curtain is a barrier formed by the fusion of four filaments that partition the corolla tube longitudinally. This structure deserves further study because of its potential taxonomic utility as well as ecological importance.
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
The phylogenetic hypothesis above is based on preliminary data and only a fraction of the generic diversity is represented. To date, little is known about evolutionary relationships within Ruellieae. Additional research will improve our understanding of this species-rich and morphologically diverse lineage.
About This PageThanks to Carrie Kiel, Lucinda McDade, and Katja Schulz for their help in creating & maintaining this and subsequent pages.
Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Erin Tripp at
Page copyright © 2009
All Rights Reserved.
- First online 13 November 2006
- Content changed 10 April 2007
Citing this page:
Tripp, Erin. 2007. Ruellieae. Version 10 April 2007 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Ruellieae/52296/2007.04.10 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/