Under Construction

Hemigraphis + Strobilanthes + relatives

Erin Tripp
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Containing group: Ruellieae


Hemigraphis is a taxonomically difficult genus with a center of diversity in the Philippines and Malesia. As of 1998, there were approximately 146 published names, but several of these are likely synonyms (Moylan 1999).

Strobilanthes is a large genus of ca. 300 species. Species are distributed throughout southern, southeast, and peninsular Asia as well as northern Australia. Strobilanthes is commonly characterized by having flowers with two rows of hairs on the posterior corolla surface that retain style. The filament curtain in Strobilanthes is of a particular type, consisting of a partially developed 5th (posterior) filament that forms a small lobe or ridge between the other four, fused filaments (Manktelow 2000). Some species of Strobilanthes and Hemigraphis are cultivated for their attractive, vegetative qualities.

Recent phylogenetic analyses (Moylan et al. 2004) suggest Strobilanthes, along with Hemigraphis and Sericocalyx are non-monophyletic. These authors proposed an expanded genus Strobilanthes s.l. to include Aechmanthera, Clarkeasia, Hemigraphis, Sericocalyx, and Stenosiphonium. Strobilanthes s.l. replaces several small, segregate genera of Strobilanthinae (sensu Bremekamp 1944).


Manktelow, M. 2000. The filament curtain: a structure important to systematics and pollination biology in the Acanthaceae. Bot. Journ. Linn. Soc. 133: 129-160.

Moylan. E. Hemigraphis (Nees) Acanthaceae from the Philippines: An example of species delimitation. Oxford Plant Systematics OPS. 7 December 1999.

Moylan, E.C., J.R. Bennett. M.A. Carine, R.G. Olmstead, and R.W. Scotland. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among Strobilanthes s.l. (Acanthaceae): evidence from ITS nrDNA, trnL-F cpDNA, and morphology. Am. Journ. Bot. 91(5): 724-735.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Hemigraphis alternata T.Anders.
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © Missouri Botanical Garden (MO)
Scientific Name Hemigraphis repanda Lindau
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 2005 www.akva.sk
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Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden

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Citing this page:

Tripp, Erin. 2006. Hemigraphis + Strobilanthes + relatives. Version 13 November 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Hemigraphis_%2B_Strobilanthes_%2B_relatives/65590/2006.11.13 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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