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Carrion flower, Piaranthus foetidusRainier pleated gentian, Gentiana calycosaGalium ambiguum
taxon links [down<--]Asterids Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Containing group: Asterids


Albach, D. C., P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and R. G. Olmstead. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of asterids based on sequences of four genes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88:163-212.

Backlund, M., B. Oxelman, and B. Bremer. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within the Gentianales based on ndhF and rbcL sequences, with particular reference to the Loganiaceae. American Journal of Botany 87:1029-1043.

Bremer, B. and L. Struwe. 1992. Phylogeny of the Rubiaceae and Loganiaceae: Congruence or conflict between morphological and molecular data. American Journal of Botany 79:1171-1194.

Bremer, K., A. Backlund, B. Sennblad, U. Swenson, K. Andreasen, M. Hjertson, J. Lundberg, M. Backlund, and B. Bremer. 2001. A phylogenetic analysis of 100+ genera and 50+ families of euasterids based on morphological and molecular data with notes on possible higher level morphological synapomorphies. Plant Systematics and Evolution 229:137-169.

Bremer, B., K. Bremer, N. Heidari, P. Erixon, R. G. Olmstead, A. A. Anderberg, M. Källersjö, and E. Barkhordarian. 2002. Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24: 274-301.

Fay, M. F., B. Bremer, G. T. Prance, M. van der Bank, D. Bridson, and M. W. Chase. 2000. Plastid rbcL sequence data show Dialypetalanthus to be a member of Rubiaceae. Kew Bulletin 55:853-864.

Olmstead, R. G., K.-J. Kim, R. K. Jansen, and S. J. Wagstaff. 2000. The phylogeny of the Asteridae sensu lato based on chloroplast ndhF gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16:96-112.

Savolainen, V., M. F. Fay, D. C. Albach, A. Backlund, M. van der Bank, K. M. Cameron, S. A. Johnson, M. D. Lledó, J.-C. Pintaud, M. Powell, M. C. Sheahan, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, P. Weston, W. M. Whitten, K. J. Wurdack, and M. W. Chase. 2000. Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcl gene sequences. Kew Bulletin 55:257-309.

Sennblad, B. and B. Bremer. 1996. The familial and subfamilial relationships of Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae evaluated with rbcL data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 202:153-175.

Soltis, D. E., P. S. Soltis, M. W. Chase, M. E. Mort, D. C. Albach, M. Zanis, V. Savolainen, W. H. Hahn, S. B. Hoot, M. F. Fay, M. Axtell, S. M. Swensen, L. M. Prince, W. J. Kress, K. C. Nixon, and J. S. Farris. 2000. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA, rbcL, and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133:381-461.

Struwe L. and V. A. Albert, eds. 2002. Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Struwe, L., V. A. Albert, and B. Bremer. 1995. Cladistics and family-level classification of the Gentianales. Cladistics 10:175-206.

Title Illustrations
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Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Carrion flower, Piaranthus foetidus
Scientific Name Piaranthus foetidus
Comments Carrion flower (Apocynaceae). Cultivated at the Botanical Garden Basel, Switzerland.
Acknowledgements courtesy Botanical Image Database
Copyright © 2001 University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
Rainier pleated gentian, Gentiana calycosa
Scientific Name Gentiana calycosa (Gentianaceae)
Location Kidd Basin, near Kidd Creek, north of Black Mountain in the Trinity Alps (Siskiyou County, California, USA).
Comments Rainier pleated gentian
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 1999
Galium ambiguum
Scientific Name Galium ambiguum
Location Low Divide (California, USA).
Comments Rubiaceae
Creator Photograph by Brother Alfred Brousseau
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 1995
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Gentianales. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Gentianales/20724/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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