Guide to the Coastal Marine Isopods of California

Richard Brusca, Vania R. Coelho, and Stefano Taiti

Table of Contents


Arcangeli, A. 1932. Isopodi terrestri raccolti dal Prof. Silvestri nel Nord-America. Boll. Lab. Zool. gen. agr. Portici 26: 121-141.

Benedict, J. E. 1898. Two new isopods of the genus Idothea from the coast of California. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 12: 53-55.

Bowman, T. E., N. L. Bruce and J. D. Standing. 1981. Recent introduction of the cirolanid isopod crustacean Cirolana arcuata into San Francisco Bay. J. Crustacean Biol. 1: 545-557.

Bruce, N. L. 1986. Revision of the isopod crustacean genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 (Cymothoidae: Flabellifera), parasitic on marine fishes. J. Nat. Hist. 20: 1089-1192.

Bruce, N. L. 1990. The genera Catoessa, Elthusa, Enispa, Ichthyoxenus, Idusa, Livoneca and Norileca n. gen. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), crustacean parasites of marine fishes, with descriptions of eastern Australian species. Rec. Australian Mus. 42: 247-300.

Bruce, N. L. 1993. Two new genera of marine isopod crustaceans (Flabellifera: Sphaeromatidae) from southern Australia, with a reappraisal of the Sphaeromatidae. Invertebr. Taxon. 7: 151-171.

Bruce, N. L., and D. A. Jones. 1981. The systematics and ecology of some cirolanid isopods from southern Japan. J. Nat. Hist. 15: 67-85.

Bruce, N. L., R. C. Brusca and P. M. Delaney. 1982. The status of the isopod families Corallanidae Hansen, 1890 and Excorallanidae Stebbing, 1904 (Flabellifera). J. Crustacean Biol. 2(3): 464-468.

Brusca, R. C. 1978A. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the eastern Pacific (Isopoda: Cymothoidae). I. Biology of Nerocila californica. Crustaceana 34(2): 141-154.

Brusca, R. C. 1978B. Studies on the cymothoid fish symbionts of the Eastern Pacific (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae). II. Biology and systematics of Lironeca vulgaris. Occ. Paps. Allan Hancock Fdn. (n. ser.) 2: 1-19.

Brusca, R. C. 1980. Common Intertidal Invertebrates of the Gulf of California. 2nd ed. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Brusca, R. C. 1981. A monograph on the Isopoda Cymothoidae (Crustacea) of the Eastern Pacific. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. (London) 73(2): 117-199.

Brusca, R. C. 1983A. A monograph on the isopod family Aegidae in the tropical Eastern Pacific. I. The genus Aega. Allan Hancock Fdn., Monogr. Mar. Biol., No. 12: 1-39.

Brusca, R. C. 1983B. Two new idoteid isopods from Baja California and the Gulf of California (Mexico) and an analysis of the evolutionary history of the genus Colidotea (Crustacea: Isopoda: Idoteidae). Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 20(4): 69-79.

Brusca, R. C. 1984. Phylogeny, evolution and biogeography of the marine isopod subfamily Idoteinae (Crustacea: Isopoda: Idoteidae). Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 20(7): 99-134.

Brusca, R. C. 1989. Provisional keys to the genera Cirolana, Gnathia, and Limnoria known from California waters. SCAMIT [Southern California Association of Marine Invertebrate Taxonomists] Newsletter 8(4): 17-21.

Brusca, R.C. and S. France. 1992. The genus Rocinela (Crustacea: Isopoda: Aegidae) in the tropical eastern Pacific. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. (London) 106: 231-275.

Brusca, R. C. and M. R. Gilligan. 1983. Tongue replacement in a marine fish (Lutjanus guttatus) by a parasitic isopod (Crustacea: Isopoda). Copeia 3: 813-816.

Brusca, R. C. and E. W. Iverson. 1985. A guide to the marine isopod Crustacea of Pacific Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 33 (Suppl. 1):1-77.

Brusca, R. C. and M. Ninos. 1978. The status of Cirolana californiensis Schultz and Cirolana deminuta Menzies and George, with a key to the California species of Cirolana (Isopoda: Cirolanidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 91(2): 379-385.

Brusca, R. C., and B. R. Wallerstein. 1977. The marine isopod Crustacea of the Gulf of California. I. Family Idoteidae. Amer. Mus. Novitates 2634: 1-17.

Brusca, R. C. and B. R. Wallerstein. 1979A. Zoogeographic patterns of idoteid isopods in the northeast Pacific, with a review of shallow-water zoogeography for the region. Bull. Biol. Soc. Wash. 3: 67-105.

Brusca, R. C. and B. R. Wallerstein. 1979B. The marine isopod crustaceans of the Gulf of California. II. Idoteidae. New genus, new species, new records, and comments on the morphology, taxonomy and evolution within the family. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 92(2): 253-271.

Brusca, R. C. and G. D. F. Wilson. 1991. A phylogenetic analysis of the Isopoda with some classificatory recommendations. Mem. Queensland Mus. 31: 143-204.

Brusca, R. C., R. Wetzer, and S. France. 1995. Cirolanidae (Crustacea; Isopoda; Flabellifera) of the tropical eastern Pacific. Proc. San Diego Nat. Hist. Soc., No. 30, 96 pp.

Budde-Lund, G. 1904. A revision of ‘Crustacea Isopoda terrestria’ with additions and illustrations. 2. Spherilloninae. 3. Armadillo. Hagerup, Copenhagen, pp. 33-144, pls VI-X.

Cadien, D. and R. C. Brusca. 1993. Anthuridean isopods (Crustacea) of California and the temperate northeast Pacific. SCAMIT [Southern California Association of Marine Invertebrate Taxonomists] Newsletter 12(6): 1-26.

Carlton, J. T. 1979. Introduced invertebrates of San Francisco Bay. Pp. 427-444 in T. J. Conomos (ed.), San Francisco Bay: the urbanized estuary. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California.

Carlton, J. T. and E. W. Iverson. 1981. Biogeography and natural history of Sphaeroma walkeri Stebbing (Crustacea: Isopoda) and its introduction to San Diego Bay, California. J. nat. Hist. 15: 31-48.

Carvacho, A. 1981. Le genre Janira Leach, avec description d’une nouvelle espèce (Isopoda, Asellota). Crustaceana 41: 131-142.

Cohen, B. J. and G. C. B. Poore. 1994. Phylogeny and biogeography of the Gnathiidae (Crustacea: Isopoda) with description of new genera and species, most from south-eastern Australia. Mem. Mus. Victoria 54: 271-397.

Cookson, L. J. 1991. Australasian species of Limnoriidae (Crustacea: Isopoda). Mem. Mus. Victoria 52(2): 137-262.

Delaney, P. M. 1982. The synonymy of Excorallana kathyae Menzies, 1962, with Excorallana truncata (Richardson, 1899), with a redescription of the species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Excorallanidae). J. Crustacean Biol. 2: 273-280.

Delaney, P. M. 1984. Isopods of the genus Excorallana Stebbing, 1904 from the Gulf of California, Mexico (Crustacea, Isopoda, Corallanidae). Bull. Mar. Sci. 34 (1): 1-20.

Delaney, P. M. and R. C. Brusca. 1985. Two new species of Tridentella Richardson, 1905 (Isopoda: Flabellifera: Tridentellidae) from California, with a rediagnosis and comments on the family and a key to the genera of Tridentellidae and Corallanidae. J. Crustacean Biol. 5(4): 728-742

Dow, T. G. 1958. Description of a new isopod from California, Exosphaeroma inornata. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 57: 93-97.

Ferrara, F. and S. Taiti. 1989. A new genus and species of terrestrial isopod from Malaysia. J. nat. Hist. 23: 1033-1039.

Garthwaite, R. 1988. Detonella papillicornis (Richardson) (Isopoda: Oniscidea: Scyphacidae) from Bolinas Lagoon, California. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 87(1): 46-47.

Garthwaite, R. 1992. Oniscidea (Isopoda) of the San Francisco Bay Area. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 47 (11): 303-328.

Garthwaite, R., F.G. Hochberg and C. Sassaman. 1985. The occurrence and distribution of terrestrial isopods (Oniscoidea) on Santa Cruz Island with preliminary data for the other California islands. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 84(1): 23-37.

Garthwaite, R., R. Lawson and S. Taiti. 1992. Morphological and genetic relationships among four species of Armadilloniscus Uljanin, 1875 (Isopoda:Oniscidea: Scyphacidae). J. nat. Hist. 26: 327-338

Garthwaite, R. and C. Sassaman. 1985. Porcellionides floria, new species, from North America; provinciality in the cosmopolitan isopod Porcellionides pruinosus (Brandt). J. Crustacean Biol. 5(3): 539-555.

Giard, A. 1887. Fragments biologiques. VII. Sur les Danalia, genre de Cryptonisciens parasites des Sacculines. Bull. Biol. Fr. Belgique (2) 18: 47-53.

Giard, A. and J. Bonnier. 1887. Contributions a l'etude des bopyriens. Trav. Inst. Zool. Lille Lab. Mar. Wimereux 5: 1-272.

George, R. Y. and J. O. Strömberg. 1968. Some new species and new records of marine isopods from San Juan Archipelago, Washington, U.S.A. Crustaceana 14 (3): 225-254.

Guzman, H. M., V. L. Obando, R. C. Brusca and P. M. Delaney. 1988. Aspects of population biology of the marine isopod Excorallana tricornis occidentalis Richardson, 1905 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Corallanidae) at Cano Island, Pacific Costa Rica. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43(1): 77-87.

Harrison, K. and J. P. Ellis. 1991. The genera of the Sphaeromatidae (Crustacea: Isopoda). A key and distributional list. Invertbr. Taxon. 5: 915-952.

Hatch, M. H. 1947. The Chelifera and Isopoda of Washington and adjacent regions. Univ. Wash. Publ. Biol. 10: 155-274.

Hays, W. B. 1977. Factors affecting the distribution of Tylos punctatus (Isopoda, Oniscoidea) on beaches of southern California and northern Mexico. Pacif. Sci. 31: 165-186.

Hoese, B. 1981. Morphologie und Funktion des Wasserleitungssystems der terrestrischen Isopoden (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Zoomorphology 98: 135-167.

Hoese, B. 1982A. Der Ligia-Typ des Wasserleitungssystems bei den terrestrischen Isopoden und seine Entwicklung in der Familie Ligiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Zool. Jb. (Anat.) 108: 225-261.

Hoese, B. 1982B. Morphologie und Evolution der Lungen bei den terrestrischen Isopoden (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscoidea). Zool. Jb. (Anat.) 197: 396-422.

Holmes, S. and M. E. Gay. 1909. Four new species of isopods from the coast of California. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 36 (Pub. no. 1670): 375-379.

Jansen, K. P. 1981. Eurylana, a new genus of Cirolanidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera) with two new species, Eurylana cookii (Filhol) and Eurylana arcuata (Hale). J. Roy. Soc. N. Z. 11: 5-10.

Jay, C. V. 1989. Prevalence, size, and fecundity of the parasitic isopod Argeia pugettensis on its host Crangon francisorum. Am. Midl. Nat. 121(1): 68-77.

Kensley, B. and H. W. Kaufman. 1978. Cleantioides, a new idoteid isopod genus from Baja California and Panama. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 91 (3): 658-665.

Kensley, B. and M. Schotte. 1989. Guide to marine isopod crustaceans of the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington, D.C., and London. 308 p.

Kussakin, O. G. 1962A. On the fauna of Janiridae (Isopoda, Asellota) from the seas of the USSR. (In Russian.) Trudy Zool. Inst. (Leningrad) 30: 17-65.

Kussakin, O. G. 1962B. On the fauna of Munnidae (Isopoda, Asellota) from the Far-Eastern seas of the USSR. (In Russian.) Tr. Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30: 66-109.

Kussakin, O. G. 1979. Marine and brackish isopods (Isopoda) of cold and temperate waters of the northern hemisphere. Volume 1. Suborder Flabellifera. (In Russian.) Opred. Faune SSSR Akad. Nauk 122: 1-470. Kussakin, O. G. 1982. Marine and brackish isopods (Isopoda) of cold and temperate waters of the northern hemisphere. Volume 2. Suborder Anthuridea, Microcerberidea, Valvifera, Tyloidea. (In Russian.) Opred. Faune SSSR Akad. Nauk 131: 1-461.

Kussakin, O. G. 1988. Marine and brackish isopods (Isopoda) of cold and temperate waters of the northern hemisphere. Volume 3. Suborder Asellota. Part 1. Families Janiridae, Santiidae, Dendrotionidae, Munnidae, Paramunnidae, Haplomunnidae, Mesosignidae, Haploniscidae, Mictosomatidae, Ischnomesidae. (In Russian.) Opred. Faune SSSR 152: 1-500.

Lang, K. 1960. Contributions to the knowledge of the genus Microcerberus Karaman (Crustacea Isopoda) with a description of a new species from the central Californian coast. Arkiv for Zoologi 13 (22): 493-510.

Leistikow, A. and J.W. Wägele. 1999. Checklist of the terrestrial isopods of the new world (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea). Revta bras. Zool. 16 (1): 1-72.

Markham, J. C. 1974. Parasitic bopyrid isopods of the amhpi-American genus Stegophryxus Thompson with the descrition of a new speceis from Califronai. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 73: 33-41.

Markham, J. C. 1975. A review of the bopyrid isopod genus Munidion Hansen, 1897, parasitic on galatheid crabs in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Bull. Mar. Sci. 25 (3): 422-441.

Markham, J. C. 1977a. Description of a new western Atlantic species of Argeia Dana with a proposed new subfamily for this and related genera (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae). Zoologische Mededelingen 52(9): 107-123.

Markham, J. C. 1977b. The status and systematic position of the species of the bopyrid isopod genus Phyllodurus Stimpson, 1857. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 90: 813-818.

Markham, J. C. 1985. A new species of Asymmetrione (Isopoda: Bopyridae) infesting the hermit crab Isocheles pilosus (Holmes) in southern California. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 84: 104-108.

Menzies, R. J. 1950A. The taxonomy, ecology, and distribution of Northern California isopods of the genus Idothea with the description of a new species. Wasmann J. Biol. 8: 155-195.

Menzies, R. J. 1950B. Notes on California isopods of the genus Armadilloniscus, with the description of Armadilloniscus coronacapitalis n. sp. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 26 (13): 467-481.

Menzies, R. J. 1951A. New marine isopods, chiefly from Northern California with notes on related forms. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 101: 105-156.

Menzies, R. J. 1951B. A new species of Limnoria. Bull. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 50: 86-88.

Menzies, R. J. 1952. Some marine asellote isopods from Northern California, with descriptions of nine new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 102: 117-159.

Menzies, R. J. 1954A. A review of the systematics and ecology of the genus "Exosphaeroma" with the description of a new genus, a new species, and a new subspecies (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromidae). Amer. Mus. Novitates 1683: 1-24.

Menzies, R. J. 1954B. The comparative biology of reproduction in the woodboring isopod crustacean Limnoria. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 112: 364-388.

Menzies, R. J. 1957. The marine borer family Limnoriidae (Crustacea, Isopoda). Bull. Mar. Sci. Gulf and Caribbean 7: 101-200.

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Menzies, R. J. and M. A. Miller 1972. Systematics and zoogeography of the genus Synidotea (Crustacea: Isopoda) with an account of Californian species. Smithsonian Contr. Zool. 102: 1-33.

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Miller, M.A. 1968. Isopoda and Tanaidacea from buoys in coastal waters of the continental United States, Hawaii, and the Bahamas (Crustacea). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 125: 1-53.

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About This Page

Richard Brusca
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona, USA

Vania R. Coelho
Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California, USA

Stefano Taiti

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Richard Brusca at and Vania R. Coelho at

Page: Tree of Life Guide to the Coastal Marine Isopods of California Authored by Richard Brusca, Vania R. Coelho, and Stefano Taiti. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

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