VirusesDavid P. Mindell
- Double-stranded RNA Viruses (monophyly uncertain)
- Single-stranded Negative Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly uncertain)
- Single-stranded Positive Sense RNA Viruses (monophyly uncertain)
- Single-stranded DNA Viruses (non-monophyletic)
- Double-stranded DNA Viruses (non-monophyletic)
- DNA-RNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses (monophyly uncertain)
Calisher, C. H., M. C. Horzinek, M. A. Mayo, H. W. Ackermann, and J. Maniloff. 1995. Sequence analyses and a unifying system of virus taxonomy - consensus via consent. Archives of Virology 140 (11):2093-2099.
Fauquet, C. M., M. A. Mayo, J. Maniloff, U. Desselberger, and L. A. Ball (Eds.). 2005. Virus Taxonomy. Elsevier, San Diego.
Fields, B. N., D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (eds.) 1996. Fields Virology, 3rd ed. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, Pa.
Gibbs, A. J. 2000. Virus nomenclature descending into chaos. Archives of Virology 145:1505-1507.
Hendrix, R. W. 1999. The long evolutionary reach of viruses. Current Biology 9:R914-R917.
Hendrix, R. W., J. G. Lawrence, G. F. Hatfull, and S. Casjens. 2000. The origins and ongoing evolution of viruses. Trends in Microbiology 8:504-508.
Hendrix, R. W., M. C. M. Smith, R. N. Burns, M. E. Ford, and G. F. Hatfull. 1999. Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:2192-2197.
Iyer, L. M., L. Aravind, and E. V. Koonin. 2001. Common Origin of Four Diverse Families of Large Eukaryotic DNA Viruses. Journal of Virology 75(23):11720-11734.
Lawrence, J. G., G. F. Hatfull, and R. W. Hendrix. 2002. Imbroglios of viral taxonomy: Genetic exchange and failings of phenetic approaches. Journal of Bacteriology 184(17):4891-4905.
Lovisolo, O., R. Hull, and O. Rösler. 2003. Coevolution of viruses with hosts and vectors and possible paleontology. Advances in Virus Research 62:325-379.
McCormack, G. P. and J. P. Clewley. 2002. The application of molecular phylogenetics to the analysis of viral genome diversity and evolution. Reviews in Medical Virology 12(4):221-238.
Mindell, D. P., J. S. Rest, and L. P. Villarreal. 2004. Viruses and the tree of life. Pp. 107-118 in Cracraft, J. and M. J. Donoghue (eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, New York.
Rice, G., L. Tang, K. Stedman, F. Roberto, J. Spuhler, E. Gillitzer, J. E. Johnson, T. Douglas, and M. Young. 2004. The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type that spans all domains of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101(20):7716-7720.
Tidona, C. A. and G. Darai. 2000. Iridovirus homologues of cellular genes -- implications for the molecular evolution of large DNA viruses. Virus Genes 21:77-81.
Villarreal, L. P. and V. R. DeFilippis. 2000. A hypothesis for DNA viruses as the origin of eukaryotic replication proteins. Journal of Virology 74:7079-7084.
Villarreal, L. P. 2005. Viruses and the Evolution of Life. ASM Press. Washington DC.
van Regenmortel, M. H. V. 2004. Viruses are real, virus species are man-made, taxonomic constructions. Archives of Virology 148(12):2481-2488.
van Regenmortel, M. H. V., C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A. Mayo, D. J. McGeoch, C. R. Pringle, and R. B. Wickner (eds.) 2000. Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press, San Diego.
van Regenmortel, M. H. V. and B. W. J. Mahy. 2004. Emerging issues in virus taxonomy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(1):8-13.
van Regenmortel, M. H. V., M. A. Mayo, C. M. Fauquet, and J. Maniloff. 2000. Virus nomenclature: consensus versus chaos. Archives of Virology 145(10):2227-2232.
Ward, C. W. 1993. Progress towards a higher taxonomy of viruses. Research in Virology 144(6):419-453.
Zanotto, P. M. D., M. J. Gibbs, E. A. Gould, and E. C. Holmes. 1996. A reevaluation of the higher taxonomy of viruses based on RNA polymerases. Journal of Virology 70(9):6083-6096.
Information on the Internet
- International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.
- All the Virology on the WWW. The Garry Lab. Tulane University.
- Big Picture Book of Viruses. A catalog of virus pictures on the WWW.
- American Society for Virology.
- Institute for Molecular Virology. University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- Viruses - From Structure to Biology. Sondra and Milton Schlesinger (Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO).
- Did DNA Come From Viruses? Article by Carl Zimmer about Patrick Forterre's work.
- Virus Ultrastructure. Linda Stannard, University of Cape Town.
- Electron Micrographs of Animal Viruses. Queen's University at Belfast.
- UNAIDS. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS.
- HIV Sequence Database. Los Alamos National Laboratory.
- Resources for Retrovirus Research. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
- U. S. National Center for Infectious Diseases.
- European Centre for Infectious Diseases (ECID) .
About This Page
David P. Mindell
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA
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Mindell, David P. 2005. Viruses. Version 01 January 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Viruses/5/2005.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/