This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
Clément, P. 1985. The relationships of rotifers. In: S. Conway Morris et al. (eds.), The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Clément, P. and E. Wurdak. 1991. Rotifera. Pages 219–297 in: Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. 4. F. W. Harrison and E. E. Ruppert, eds. Wiley-Liss, New York.
Ferraguti, M. and G. Melone. 1999. Spermiogenesis in Seison nebaliae (Rotifera, Seisonidea): further evidence of a rotifer—acanthocephalan relationship. Tissue Cell 31:428–440.
Funch, P., M.V. Sørensen and M. Obst. 2005. On the phylogenetic position of Rotifera—have we come any further? Hydrobiologia 546:11–28.
García-Varela, M. and S. A. Nadler. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships among Syndermata inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1):61-72.
Garey, J. R., T. J. Near, M. R. Nonnemacher, and S. A. Nadler. 1996. Molecular evidence for Acanthocephala as a subtaxon of Rotifera. J. Mol. Evol. 43:287-292.
Garey, J. R., A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, T. J. Near, and S. A. Nadler. 1998. The evolutionary relationships of rotifers and acanthocephalans. Hydrobiologia 387:83-91.
Herlyn, H., O. Piskurek, J. Schmitz, U. Ehlers, and H. Zischler. 2003. The syndermatan phylogeny and the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism as inferred from 18S rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26:155–164.
Kutikova, L. 1983. Parallelism in the evolution of rotifers. Hydrobiologia 104:3-7.
Lorenzen, S. 1985. Phylogeny of pseudocoelomate evolution. In: S. Conway Morris et al. (eds), The origins and relationships of lower invertebrates. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Mark Welch, D. B. 2000. Evidence from a protein-coding gene that acanthocephalans are rotifers. Invertebrate Biology 119:17-26.
Mark Welch, D. B. 2001. Early contributions of molecular phylogenetics to understanding the evolution of Rotifera. Hydrobiologia 446/447:315-322.
Melone, G., C. Ricci, H. Segers, and R. L. Wallace. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of phylum Rotifera with emphasis on the families of Bdelloidea. Hydrobiologia 387/388:101-107.
Miquelis, A., J.-F. Martin, E. W. Carson, G. Brun, and André Gilles. 2000. Performance of 18S rDNA helix E23 for phylogenetic relationships within and between the Rotifera–Acanthocephala clades. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la vie/Life Sciences 323:925–941.
Nogrady, T., R. L. Wallace, and T. W. Snell. 1993. Rotifera, Vol. 1: Biology, Ecology and Systematics. Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World. H. J. Dumont, ed. SPB Academic Publishers bv., The Hague.
Segers, H. 2002. The nomenclature of the Rotifera: annotated checklist of valid family- and genus-group names. Journal of Natural History 36:631-640.
Sørensen, M. V. 2002. On the evolution and morphology of the rotiferan trophi, with a cladistic analysis of Rotifera. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40:129-154.
Sørensen, M. V. and G. Giribet 2006. A modern approach to rotiferan phylogeny: Combining morphological and molecular data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40(2):585-608.
Sudzuki, M. 1964. New systematical approach to the Japanese planktonic Rotatoria. Hydrobiologia 23:1-124.
Wallace, R.L. and T. W. Snell. 1991. Rotifera. In: Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. J. H. Thorpe & A. P. Covich, eds. Academic Press, New York.
Witek, A., H. Herlyn, A. Meyer, L. Boell, G. Bucher and T. Hankeln. 2008. EST based phylogenomics of Syndermata questions monophyly of Eurotatoria. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2008, 8:345doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-345
Zrzavy, J. 2001. The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia Parasitologica 48:81-103.
Information on the Internet
- Rotifer Systematic Database. Elizabeth Walsh.
- Micscape magazine:
- The Wonderfully Weird World of Rotifers. A article written by Richard L. Howey and illustrated by Wim van Egmond.
- Rotifers by Wim van Egmond.
- Gallery of Rotifers by Wim van Egmond.
- Rotifers and how to find them by Roy Winsby.
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Rotifera. Rotifers. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Rotifera/2480/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/