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Kevin de Queiroz and Tod Reeder
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taxon links [down<--]Iguania Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

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Containing group: Iguania


Blackburn, D.G. 1978. The comparative, functional, and evolutionary myology of burrowing sceloporine lizards. Master's Thesis, Cornell University.

Burt, C.E. 1935. A key to the lizards of the United States and Canada. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 38:255-305.

Carpenter, C.C. 1963. A comparison of the patterns of display of Urosaurus, Uta, and Streptosaurus. Herpetologica 18:145-152.

Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Smithson. Inst. Ann. Rep. 1898:153-1294.

de Queiroz, K. 1982. The scleral ossicles of sceloporine iguanids: A reexamination with comments on their phylogenetic significance. Herpetologica 38:302-311.

Etheridge, R. 1964. The skeletal morphology and systematic relationships of sceloporine lizards. Copeia 1964:610-631.

Etheridge, R., and K. de Queiroz. 1988. A phylogeny of Iguanidae. Pages 283-367 in R. Estes and G. Pregill, eds. Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families. Essays commemorating Charles L. Camp Stanford University Press, Stanford, California.

Fanghella, C., D.F. Avery, and W.W. Tanner. 1975. Urosaurus and its phylogenetic relationship to Uta as determined by osteology and myology (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Great Basin Nat. 35:245-268.

Frost, D.R., and R. Etheridge. 1989. A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomy of iguanian lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Univ. Kans. Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 81:1-65.

Hotton, N.I. 1955. A survey of adaptive relationships of dentition to diet in the North American Iguanidae. Am. Midl. Nat. 53:88-114.

Larsen, K.R., and W.W. Tanner. 1975. Evolution of the sceloporine lizards (Iguanidae). Great Basin Nat. 35:1-20.

Mittleman, M.B. 1942. A summary of the iguanid genus Urosaurus. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 91:106-181.

Paull, D., E.E. Williams, and W.P. Hall. 1976. Lizard karyotypes from the Galapagos Islands: Chromosomes in phylogeny and evolution. Breviora (441):1-31.

Porter, C.A., M.W. Haiduk, and K. de Queiroz. 1994. Evolution and phylogenetic significance of ribosomal gene location in chromosomes of squamate reptiles. Copeia 1994:302-313.

Presch, W. 1969. Evolutionary osteology and relationships of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma (Family Iguanidae). Copeia 1969:250-275.

Reeder, T.W. 1995. Phylogenetic relationships among phrynosomatid lizards as inferred from mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences: Substitutional bias and information content of transitions relative to transversions. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 4:203-222.

Savage, J.M. 1958. The iguanid lizard genera Urosaurus and Uta, with remarks on related groups. Zoologica 43:41-54.

Schmidt, K.P. 1953. A check list of North American amphibians and reptiles Sixth ed., American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Smith, H.M. 1946. Handbook of lizards. Lizards of the United States and Canada Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Stebbins, R.C. 1954. Amphibians and reptiles of western North America McGraw-Hill, New York.

Wiens, J.J. 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of phrynosomatid lizards and monophyly of the Sceloporus Group. Copeia 1993:287-299.

Wyles, J.S. and G.C. Gorman. 1978. Close relationship between the lizard genus Sator and Sceloporus utiformis (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae): Electrophoretic and immunological evidence. J. Herpetol. 12:343-350.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Phrynosoma
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © Kevin de Queiroz
About This Page

Kevin de Queiroz
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C., USA

Tod Reeder
San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Kevin de Queiroz at

Page: Tree of Life Phrynosomatidae. Authored by Kevin de Queiroz and Tod Reeder. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

de Queiroz, Kevin and Tod Reeder. 1996. Phrynosomatidae. Version 01 January 1996 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Phrynosomatidae/17587/1996.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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