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Platypus and echidnas

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Containing group: Mammalia

Other Names for Monotremata


Archer, M., T. F. Flannery, A. Ritchie, and R. E. Molnar. 1985. First Mesozoic mammal from Australia-An early Cretaceous monotreme. Nature 318:363-366.

Archer, M., P. Murray, S. Hand, and H. Godthelp. 1993. Reconsideration of monotreme relationships based on the skull and dentition of the Miocence Obduron dicksoni. Pages 75-94 in Mammal Phylogeny. Volume 1. Mesozoic Differentiation, Multituberculates, Monotremes, Early Eutherians, and Marsupials. (F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, and M. C. McKenna, eds.). Springer Verlag, New York.

Augee, M. L., ed. 1992. Platypus and Echidnas. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Flannery, T. F., M. Archer, T. H. Rich, and R. Jones. A new family of monotremes from the Cretaceous of Australia. Nature 377:418-420.

Gemmell, N. J., T.R. Grant, P.S. Western, J. Walmsley, J. M. Watson, N.D. Murray, and J.A. Marshall Graves. 1995. Determining platypus relationships. Australian Journal of Zoology 43:283-291.

Griffiths, M. 1978. The Biology of the Monotremes. Academic Press, New York.

Griffiths, M. 1999. Monotremes. Pages 295–302 in Encyclopedia of Reproduction, vol. 3. J.D. Neill, ed. Academic Press, San Diego.

Grützner, F., J. Deakin, W. Rens, N. El-Mogharbel and J.A. Marshall Graves. 2003. The monotreme genome: a patchwork of reptile, mammal and unique features? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Molecular and Integreative Physiology 136(4):867–881.

Grützner, F. and J.A. Marshall Graves. 2004. A platypus’ eye view of the mammalian genome. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 14(6):642-649.

Macrini, T. E., T. Rowe, and M. Archer. 2006. Description of a cranial endocast from a fossil platypus, Obdurodon dicksoni (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae), and the relevance of endocranial characters to monotreme monophyly. Journal of Morphology 267(8):1000-1015.

Marshall-Graves, J. A. 1996. Mammals that break the rules: genetics of marsupials and monotremes. Annual Review of Genetics 30:233–266.

Musser, A. M. 2003. Review of the monotreme fossil record and comparison of palaeontological and molecular data. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Molecular and Integreative Physiology 136(4):927-942.

Musser, A. M. and M. Archer. 1998. New information about the skull and dentary of the Miocene platypus Obdurodon dicksoni, and a discussion of ornithorhynchid relationships. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 353:1063-1079.

Pascual, R. M. Archer, E. O. Juareguizar, J. L. Prado, H. Godthelp, and S. J. Hand. 1992. First discovery of monotremes in South America. Nature 356:704-706.

Retief, J. D., R. J. Winkfein, and G. H. Dixon. 1993. Evolution of the monotremes - the sequences of the protamine p1 genes of platypus and echidna. European Journal of Biochemistry 218:457-461.

Rich, T. H., J. A. Hopson, A. M. Musser, T. F. Flannery, and P. Vickers-Rich. 2005. Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians. Science 307:910-914.

Rowe, T., T. H. Rich, P. Vickers-Rich, M. Springer, and M. O. Woodburne. 2008. The oldest platypus and its bearing on divergence timing of the platypus and echidna clades. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science (USA)105(4):1238-1242.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Comments Duck-billed platypus
Creator Lloyd Glenn Ingles
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 2001 California Academy of Sciences
Scientific Name Tachyglossus aculeatus
Location captive at Australia Zoo, Beerwah, Queensland, Australia
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Echidna
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2007 Ian Sanderson
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Page: Tree of Life Monotremata. Platypus and echidnas. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2000. Monotremata. Platypus and echidnas. Version 01 January 2000 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Monotremata/15991/2000.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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