Under Construction


Karl Kjer and Roger J. Blahnik
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taxon links [up-->]Philorhethridae [up-->]Molannidae [up-->]Atriplectididae [up-->]Calamoceratidae [up-->]Leptoceridae [up-->]Odontoceridae Monophyly Uncertain[down<--]Brevitentoria Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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Tree based on Holzenthal et al., 2007, and the Trichoptera World Checklist (Morse, 2010).
Containing group: Brevitentoria


Weaver (1984) subdivided the Brevitentoria into 2 superfamilies, Leptoceroidea and Sericostomatoidea.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The monophyly of "Leptoceroidea" has not been supported in recent combined data analyses, but neither can it be strongly rejected.  A combined Bayesian analysis of nuclear rRNA, EF1alpha, and COI data supported Leptoceroidea, with a moderate posterior probability (78%;  Kjer et al., 2001), as did a weighted parsimony analysis (Kjer et al., 2002).  However, a combined parsimony analysis of the same data, plus morphology showed the group in paraphyly (Kjer et al., 2001;  2002).  The most comprehensive analysis of these data (Holzenthal et al., 2007) recovered a paraphyletic "Leptoceroidea", however, the node that rendered the group paraphyletic were not strongly supported.


Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Prather, A.L., and Kjer K.M. 2007a. Order Trichoptera Kirby 1813 (Insecta), Caddisflies. In: Zhang, Z.-Q., and Shear, W.A. (Eds). 2007 Linneaus Tercentenary: Progress in Invertebrate Taxonomy. Zootaxa. 1668:639698.

Holzenthal R.W., Blahnik, R.J., Kjer K.M and Prather, A.L. 2007b. An update on the phylogeny of Caddisflies (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Bueno-Soria, R. Barba-Alvearz and B. Armitage (Eds). Pp. 143-153. The Caddis Press.

Kjer, K.M., Blahnik, R.J. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2001) Phylogeny of Trichoptera (caddisflies): characterization of signal and noise within multiple datasets. Systematic Biology, 50, 781816.

Kjer, K.M., Blahnik, R.J. & Holzenthal, R.W. (2002) Phylogeny of caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera). Zoologica Scripta, 31, 8391.

Weaver, J.S., III. (1984) The evolution and classification of Trichoptera. Part I: the groundplan of Trichoptera. In: Morse, J.C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague, pp. 413419.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Nectopsyche utleyorum
Location Guanacaste, Costa Rica
Copyright © 1997 David Funk
About This Page

Karl Kjer
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Roger J. Blahnik
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Karl Kjer at and Roger J. Blahnik at

Page: Tree of Life Leptoceroidea. Authored by Karl Kjer and Roger J. Blahnik. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Kjer, Karl and Roger J. Blahnik. 2010. Leptoceroidea. Version 20 July 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Leptoceroidea/14576/2010.07.20 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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