Apidae sensu lato
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
Alexander, B. 1990. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of sphecoid wasps and bees. Sphecos 20: 7-16.
Alexander, B. A. and Michener, C. D. 1995. Phylogenetic studies of the families of short-tongued bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 55: 377-424.
Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28 (1-2): 233-249.
Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic Amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.
Melo, G. A. R. 1997. Phylogenetic Relationships and Classification of the Major Lineages of Apoidea (Hymenoptera), with Emphasis on the Crabronid Wasps. Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Plant, J. D. and Paulus, H. F. 1987. Comparative morphology of the postmentum of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) with special remarks on the evolution of the lorum. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 25: 81-103.
Roig-Alsina, A. and Michener, C. D. 1993. Studies of the phylogeny and classification of long-tongued bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of Kansas Science Bulletin 55: 124-162.
Information on the Internet
- Bee Phylogeny at Cornell University. Discussion of higher-level bee relationships.
- Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Logan, Utah.
- Honey Bee Lab. Penn State University.
- Carl Hayden Bee Research Center.
- The Bee Works. A website about the importance of pollinators.
- International Bee Research Association.
- B-EYE: The world through the eyes of a bee.
- List of World Bumblebees
About This Page
Page copyright © 2004
All Rights Reserved.
- First online 19 March 2004
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2004. Apidae sensu lato. Bees. Version 19 March 2004 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Apidae_sensu_lato/11193/2004.03.19 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/